地球年齡已證實為很老的嗎?

張逸萍

 

絕大部分基督徒都相信,宇宙萬物是聖經中之神所創造,不是進化而來的。但他們通常不敢肯定地球有多老,因為根據今天一般講法,地球年齡是四十六億年左右;可是根據人從聖經記載的推測,地球應該不會大大超過六千年。

我們必須問﹕「地球年齡四十六億」是否鐵一般的事實?科學家們是否已經證實了的呢?

護教學家 Henry Morris 曾經做了一個研究(見下),現有68個估計地球年齡的科學辦法,有5個難於量度,此外,顯示地球在一萬年之下的有18個,從一萬至一百萬的有20個。我想,一個公平的科學家應該說﹕地球年齡未有定論。

 

 

測量辦法

顯示年齡

文獻數量

1

Decay of earth’s magnetic field 地球磁場的衰變

10,000

1

2

Influx of radiocarbon to the earth system 放射性碳流入地球

10,000

2

3

Influx of meteoritic dust from space 太空星塵流入

太少,不能量度

3

4

Influx of Juvenile water to oceans 原生水流入海洋

340,000,000

3

5

Influx of magma from mantle to form crust漿流入構成地殼

500,000,000

3

6

Growth of oldest living part of biosphere 生物界中最老生物的增長

5,000

3

7

Origin of human civilizations 人類文明的起源

5,000

3

8

Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere -4流出至大氣層

1,750 - 175,000

4

9

Development of the total human population 人類總人口

4,000

5

10

Influx of sediment to the ocean via rivers 沉澱物從江河流入海洋

30,000,000

6

11

Erosion of sediment from continents 大陸沉澱物的侵蝕

14,000,000

6

12

Leaching of sodium from continents 從大陸的納

32,000,000

7

13

Leaching of chlorine from continents從大陸的氯

1,000,000

7

14

Leaching of calcium from continents從大陸的鈣

12,000,000

7

15

Influx of carbonate to the ocean 流入海洋的碳酸

100,000

7

16

Influx of sulphate to the ocean流入海洋的硫酸

10,000,000

7

17

Influx of chlorine to the ocean流入海洋的

164,000,000

7

18

Influx of calcium to the ocean流入海洋的鈣

1,000,000

7

19

Influx of uranium to the ocean流入海洋的鈾

1,260,000

8

20

Efflux of oil from traps by fluid pressure 流體壓流出的石油

10,000 – 100,000

9

21

Formation of radiogenic lead by neutron capture 中子捕獲形成的放射性鉛

太少,不能量度

9

22

Formation of radiogenic strontium by neutron capture中子捕獲形成的放射性鍶

太少,不能量度

9

23

Decay of natural remanent paleomagnetism 天然殘存古地磁衰

100,000

9

24

Decay of C-14 in pre-Cambrian wood寒武前的-14衰變

4,000

 

25

Decay of uranium with initial “radiogenic” lead 含放射性鉛的鈾的衰變

太少,不能量度

10

26

Decay of potassium with entrapped argon 擄獲氬的鉀的衰變

太少,不能量度

10

27

Formation of river deltas 河流三角洲的形成

5,000

11

28

Submarine oil seepage into oceans 海底石油滲出海洋

50,000,000

12

29

Decay of natural plutonium 天然的衰變

80,000,000

13

30

Decay of lines of galaxies 星系線的衰變

10,000,000

14

31

Expanding interstellar gas 星際氣體的擴張

60,000,000

15

32

Decay of short-period comets 短期慧星的損毀

10,000

16

33

Decay of long-period comets長期慧星的損毀

1,000,000

17

34

Influx of small particles to the sun 流入太陽

83,000

17

35

Maximum life of meteor showers 流星雨的最長時間

5,000,000

17

36

Accumulation of dust on the moon 月球積聚的塵埃

200,000

17

37

Instability of rings of Saturn 土星環的不穩定性

1,000,000

17

38

Escape of methane from Titan 從泰坦星逃出的沼氣

20,000,000

17

39

Deceleration of earth by tidal friction 潮汐磨損地球的減速

50,000,000

18

40

Cooling of the earth by heat efflux 地球因熱量流出而冷卻

24,000,000

18

41

Accumulation of calcareous ooze on sea floor 從海底滲出的石灰積聚

5,000,000

19

42

Influx of sodium to the ocean via rivers 從江河流入海洋的納

260,000,000

20

43

Influx of nickel to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鎳

9,000

20

44

Influx of magnesium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鎂

45,000,000

20

45

Influx of silicon to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的矽

8,000

20

46

Influx of potassium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鉀

11,000,000

20

47

Influx of copper to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的銅

50,000

20

48

Influx of gold to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的金

560,000

20

49

Influx of silver to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的銀

2,100,000

20

50

Influx of mercury to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的汞

42,000

20

51

Influx of lead to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鉛

2,000

20

52

Influx of tin to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的錫

100,000

20

53

Influx of aluminum to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鋁

100

20

54

Influx of lithium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鋰

20,000,000

20

55

Influx of titanium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鈦

160

20

56

Influx of chromium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鉻

350

20

57

Influx of manganese to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的錳

1,400

20

58

Influx of iron to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鐵

140

20

59

Influx of cobalt to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鈷

18,000

20

60

Influx of zinc to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的鋅

180,000

20

61

Influx of rubidium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

270,000

20

62

Influx of strontium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

19,000,000

20

63

Influx of bismuth to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

45,000

20

64

Influx of thorium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

350

20

65

Influx of antimony to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

350,000

20

66

Influx of tungsten to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

1,000

20

67

Influx of barium to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

84,000

20

68

Influx of molybdenum to the ocean via rivers從江河流入海洋的

500,000

20

 

譯自﹕Henry Morris, The Biblical Basis for Modern Science (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1984), p. 477-79.

        

 

 

分享於﹕https://www.facebook.com/lois.chan.568/posts/684687178389787?pnref=story

 

 

 

 

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